In general, 'camps' means staying away from home for a short period of time for a particular purpose. It does not necessarily mean staying in a tent or 'camping'.
All sorts of different of camps take place in the ATC. Some are annual, some are ad-hoc, some are run for specific training and/or activities, like AT, shooting, drill & ceremonial or personal development, whilst others are 'multi-purpose' camps that incorporate a range of activities. The duration of a camp can range from 1-2 days up to 7 days or more, depending on the purpose.
Summer camps are an example of a multi-purpose camp, where a group of around 40 cadets and staff will spend a week accommodated on an RAF base and carry out a range of activities including; section visits, flying and/or shooting and/or fieldcraft, sports competitions and social activities. They are a great way for cadets to get a glimpse into life in the RAF, learn to become independent, develop social skills and share some fantastic experiences.
Specialist camps on the other hand are run for a specific purpose and cadets will spend the majority of their time engaged in that purpose, but there will still be down-time for rest and social activity. These are a great way to spend time with other like-minded cadets and gain higher levels of qualification than would normally be possible at squadorn level.